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3rd International Conference on Ecology, Ecosystem and Conservation Biology, will be organized around the theme “Exploring the Possibilities for a Better Environment”

Ecology Ecosystem 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Ecology Ecosystem 2019

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Ecosystems, whether at the scale of a planet, forest, or urban garden, involve tightly-coupled interactions between social and biophysical processes. Understanding the nature and properties of the resulting feedbacks has its roots in ecosystem science and environmental studies. Sustainable development has two components: “sustainability” and “development.” The basic meaning of the word sustainability is the capacity for continuance indefinitely into the future. Sustainable development has been viewed as an interaction between three systems: biological, economic, and social. Sustainability does not simply mean retaining the material standards of living and environmental preservation. It is a matter of active participation of humankind in the improvement of natural systems and the redesign of global systems that leads to the conservation of our planet for future generations. Inefficient use of land, soils, water, energy, and inappropriate growing of crops and domestic animals are among the major obstacles to sustainable development in improving living standards and the environment.

 

  • Track 1-1Mass Production
  • Track 1-2Nutrient cycling
  • Track 1-3Decomposition
  • Track 1-4Ecosystem management
  • Track 1-5Oceans
  • Track 1-6Cultivated land

Biodiversity, a compression of "organic differing qualities," for the most part alludes to the assortment and changeability of life on Earth. A standout amongst the most broadly utilized definitions characterizes it as a part of terms of the changeability inside species, amongst species and between biological communities. It is a measure of the assortment of creatures present in various biological systems. This can allude to hereditary variety, biological system variety, or species variety (number of species) inside a range, biome, or planet. Biodiversity has a tendency to be more prominent close to the equator, which is by all accounts the consequence of the warm atmosphere and high essential profitability. Biodiversity is not conveyed equally on Earth. It is wealthiest in the tropics. Marine biodiversity has a tendency to be most elevated along coasts in the Western Pacific, where ocean surface temperature is most astounding and in the mid-latitudinal band in all seas. There are latitudinal slopes in species differing qualities. Biodiversity for the most part tends to bunch in hotspots, and has been expanding through time, yet will be probably going to moderate later on.

 

  • Track 2-1Genetic Diversity
  • Track 2-2Species Diversity
  • Track 2-3Ecological Diversity
  • Track 2-4Genetic resources
  • Track 2-5Invasive species

An Ecosystem is basically the neighborhood where the animal lives. The habitat is the animal’s address in that neighborhood. Some animals can survive in more than one habitat. Other animals are limited to certain habitats. The ecosystem concept describes the interrelationships between living organisms and the non-living environment. The CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) defines an "ecosystem" as a "dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit". The ecosystem approach aims at an integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. In the fields of nature conservation and biodiversity the common meaning of the term ‘habitat’ is a group of animals and plants in association with their environment.An Ecosystem is basically the neighborhood where the animal lives. The habitat is the animal’s address in that neighborhood. Some animals can survive in more than one habitat. Other animals are limited to certain habitats. The ecosystem concept describes the interrelationships between living organisms and the non-living environment. The CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) defines an "ecosystem" as a "dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit". The ecosystem approach aims at an integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. In the fields of nature conservation and biodiversity the common meaning of the term ‘habitat’ is a group of animals and plants in association with their environment.An Ecosystem is basically the neighborhood where the animal lives. The habitat is the animal’s address in that neighborhood. Some animals can survive in more than one habitat. Other animals are limited to certain habitats. The ecosystem concept describes the interrelationships between living organisms and the non-living environment. The CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) defines an "ecosystem" as a "dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit". The ecosystem approach aims at an integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. In the fields of nature conservation and biodiversity the common meaning of the term ‘habitat’ is a group of animals and plants in association with their environment.

  • Track 3-1Desert
  • Track 3-2Montane
  • Track 3-3River
  • Track 3-4Savanna
  • Track 3-5Tropical Forest
  • Track 3-6Cropland

Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. The theory that an increasing consumption of goods is economically desirable also a preoccupation with and an inclination toward the buying of consumer goods. Consumerism describes the shift in American culture from a producer-oriented society in the nineteenth century to a "consumerist" society in the twentieth century. Changes in domestic demographics and advances in industrialization, manufacturing, transportation, and communication all contributed to the change. Consumerism also contributed greatly to the liberal thrust of the Progressive Era and spawned a long-running trend of consumer advocacy and consumer protection legislation. Consumerism can be defined as an economic and social ideology and order that encourages consumption or acquisition of goods/services in a never-ending cycle. Consumerism encourages purchasing and consumption of goods and services in excess of a person’s basic needs. Consumerism can be traced back to the onset of capitalism in the 16th century in Europe. Consumerism intensified in the eighteen century because of a growing middle class that embraced luxury consumption. The eighteen century also saw an increasing interest in fashion rather than necessity as a determinant for purchasing. The growth of consumerism can also be attributed to politics and economics. For countries to thrive politically and economically, capitalist competition for profits and markets had to be at the core of every country’s agenda. Colonialism has also been attributed as one of the major drivers of consumerism.

 

 

  • Track 4-1Ethical consumerism
  • Track 4-2Consumption
  • Track 4-3Mass Production
  • Track 4-4Consumer exploitation
  • Track 4-5Campaign

Climate is the average weather in a place over many years. While the weather can change in just a few hours, climate takes hundreds, thousands, even millions of years to change. The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years. A region of the earth having specified climatic conditions his physician advised moving to a warmer climate. The average course or condition of the weather at a place usually over a period of years as exhibited by temperature, wind velocity, and precipitation a healthful climate a warm, humid climate. Carbon trading is a market-based system aimed at reducing greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels. Cap and trade schemes have been very effective in tackling environmental problems in the past, with trading in sulphur dioxide permits helping to limit acid rain in the US. The big attraction for governments concerned with stemming CO2 is that carbon trading is much easier to implement than expensive direct regulations and unpopular carbon taxes.

 

  • Track 5-1Water Cycle
  • Track 5-2Weather and Climate
  • Track 5-3Hydrologic Cycle
  • Track 5-4Regulatory
  • Track 5-5Profitability

The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is a so called greenhouse gas causing global warming. Other greenhouse gases which might be emitted as a result of your activities are methane and ozone. These greenhouse gases are normally also taken into account for the carbon footprint. They are converted into the amount of CO2 that would cause the same effects on global warming. The carbon footprint is a very powerful tool to understand the impact of personal behaviour on global warming. Today, the term “carbon footprint” is often used as shorthand for the amount of carbon being emitted by an activity or organization. The carbon component of the Ecological Footprint, which we call the carbon Footprint, takes a slightly differing approach. Our carbon Footprint measurement translates the amount of carbon dioxide emissions into the amount of productive land and sea area required to sequester those carbon dioxide emissions. The carbon Footprint is currently 60 percent of humanity’s overall Ecological Footprint and its most rapidly growing component. Humanity’s carbon Footprint has increased 11-fold since 1961. Reducing humanity’s carbon Footprint is the most essential step we can take to end overshoot and live within the means of our planet.

 

  • Track 6-1Greenhouse gas
  • Track 6-2Consumption
  • Track 6-3Nature Conservancy
  • Track 6-4Yard Waste
  • Track 6-5Paper Consumption

Hazardous waste is waste that has substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. Hazardous wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and solidification processes might be required. Hazardous-waste management, the collection, treatment, and disposal of waste material that, when improperly handled, can cause substantial harm to human health and safety or to the environment. Hazardous wastes can take the form of solids, liquids, sludge, or contained gases, and they are generated primarily by chemical production, manufacturing, and other industrial activities. They may cause damage during inadequate storage, transportation, treatment, or disposal operations. Improper hazardous-waste storage or disposal frequently contaminates surface and groundwater supplies. People living in homes built near old and abandoned waste disposal sites may be in a particularly vulnerable position. In an effort to remedy existing problems and to prevent future harm from hazardous wastes, governments closely regulate the practice of hazardous-waste management. Toxic wastes are poisons, even in very small or trace amounts. They may have acute effects, causing death or violent illness, or they may have chronic effects, slowly causing irreparable harm. Some are carcinogenic, causing cancer after many years of exposure. Others are mutagenic, causing major biological changes in the offspring of exposed humans and wildlife.

 

  • Track 7-1Carbon Tax
  • Track 7-2Landfills
  • Track 7-3Food waste and Recovery
  • Track 7-4Recyclable Waste
  • Track 7-5Latex Paint

The efficient monitoring of water resources is fundamental for effective management of water quality and aquatic ecosystems. The first stage in sustainable ecosystem management is the evaluation of the current status of target ecosystems. Traditionally, and even today, physico-chemical parameters have mainly been used to evaluate the quality of water resources. However, they have a large limit to grab the wholeness of water system, particularly in the sense of ecosystem health and integrity, for which ecological monitoring should be based on biological factors. We are increasingly recognizing that they are crucial for the survival of the aquatic biota and human beings on our planet. This Special Issue is designed to improve scientific understanding and strategies for sound aquatic ecosystem management and services for researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders. This Special Issue calls for contributions in this area, covering the ideas, concepts, methods, policies and general studies under the scope of conservation and restoration

  • Track 8-1Habitat loss
  • Track 8-2Invasive species
  • Track 8-3Dam construction
  • Track 8-4Pollution from pesticides and fertilizers
  • Track 8-5Restoring Rivers

Marine conservation is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. Marine conservation focuses on limiting human-caused damage to marine ecosystems, restoring damaged marine ecosystems, and preserving vulnerable species of the marine life. Marine conservation is a response to biological issues such as extinction and marine habitats change. Marine conservation is the study of conserving physical and biological marine resources and ecosystem functions. Marine conservation can be seen as sub-discipline of conservation biology. Deep-sea fishing activities sometimes employ gears that can, in the normal course of operation, come into contact with the sea floor. This can have a negative effect on both living marine resources and their ecosystems. The vulnerability of an ecosystem is related to the vulnerability of its constituent population, communities or habitats. When fishing gears come into contact with the seafloor and other structural elements of the ecosystem, damage can occur increasing the physical vulnerability of the ecosystem.

  • Track 9-1Fisheries
  • Track 9-2Sea Life
  • Track 9-3Nature
  • Track 9-4Marine Biology
  • Track 9-5Coral reefs

A Watershed is the area of land where all of the water that is under it or drains off of it goes into the same place. Watershed Ecology is the study of watersheds as ecosystems, primarily the analysis of interacting biotic and abiotic components within a watershed’s boundaries. Defining an ecosystem as a functioning natural unit with interacting biotic and abiotic components in a system whose boundaries are determined by the cycles and flux of energy, materials and organisms. Then a watershed is just one of many types of ecosystems. An area of land that drains water, sediment and dissolved materials to a common receiving body or outlet. The term is not restricted to surface water runoff and includes interactions with subsurface water. Watersheds vary from the largest river basins to just acres or less in size. The study of watersheds as ecosystems, primarily the analysis of interacting biotic and abiotic components within a watershed’s boundaries. Watershed ecology is essential knowledge for watershed managers because it teaches us that watersheds have structural and functional characteristics that can influence how human and natural communities coexist within them. The gross structure of a watershed -- its headwaters area, side slopes, valley floor, and water body, as well as its soils, minerals, native plants and animals are, in one sense, raw material for all the human activities that may potentially occur there. The watershed’s natural processes rainfall runoff, groundwater recharge, sediment transport, plant succession, and many others provide beneficial services when functioning properly, but may cause disasters when misunderstood and disrupted. It is crucial for people to understand watersheds and how they work before they make decisions or take actions that may affect important watershed structural or functional characteristics.

 

  • Track 10-1Arenal Lake watershed
  • Track 10-2Precipitation
  • Track 10-3Dams
  • Track 10-4Surface runoff
  • Track 10-5Infiltration

A rapidly developing research area focuses on understanding how genetic variation influences organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems and specifically the connections between genetics, gene regulation, species diversity, and ecological and biogeochemical processes. Changes in the genetic composition of foundation species and in gene-environment interactions are becoming more prevalent as a result of biological invasions, anthropogenic pollution, climate warming, and other manifestations of environmental change. These genetic changes have the potential to cascade through interacting systems to affect population viability, community organization, and the flow of nutrients and energy through ecosystems.

Restoration ecology is a scientific discipline that applies ecological theory in order to develop general principles to guide the practice of ecological restoration. Experimentation within restorations have revealed opportunities for testing hypotheses in ecology, particularly generating knowledge of how to reconstruct the composition, functions, and services of degraded environments. Restoration ecology has been dominated by botanical studies, which often include ecosystem components and processes as well as whole system-level investigation. The discipline has provoked debate over what it means to restore nature, where to source individuals for initiating communities or augmenting populations, which systems serve as appropriate references, and whether modified or entirely different restoration targets should be considered in light of rapid climate and other global changes. The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed” Cairns and Heckman 1996 synthesizes the state of the field and emphasizes that restoration ecology is its own discipline rather than a sub-discipline of ecology, distinct in its focus on the human factor in all aspects of repairing nature.

Conservation management system (CMS) a procedure for maintaining a species or habitat in a particular state. A protection administration framework (CMS) is a system for keeping up an animal groups or natural surroundings in a specific state. It is a method whereby mankind secures untamed life in an ideal condition for examination, instruction or research, in unendingness. It is a critical theme in social environment, where preservation administration offsets unchecked exploitative administration of common assets. Preservation administration frameworks are imperative for transforming practical advancement techniques into fruitful operations. In New Zealand the Department of Conservation develops conservation management strategies in conjunction with the community as a means of prioritizing conservation issues.

  • Track 13-1Conservation Law
  • Track 13-2Land designated for Conservation
  • Track 13-3Economics and Law
  • Track 13-4Physical law of Conservation
  • Track 13-5Conservation of Environment

Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Predicting and maintaining or altering the distribution and abundance of various organisms are the primary goals of natural resource management hence, the effective management of natural ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge. Paradoxically, management of ecosystems often ignores relevant ecological theory and many ecological investigations are pursued without appropriate consideration of management implications. The fundamental thesis of this book is that ecological principles can, and should, serve as the primary basis for the management of natural ecosystems, including their plant and animal populations. Rangeland Ecology and Management focuses on the biological and physical processes of ecosystems and application of this knowledge to sustainable use of range lands. Selection of courses in wildlife or fisheries science, watershed management and Eco hydrology, soil and water science, animal and plant science, or agricultural and resource economics can enhance employment opportunities. 

 

  • Track 14-1Adaptive management
  • Track 14-2Integrated natural resource management
  • Track 14-3Anthropocentrism
  • Track 14-4Eco centrism
  • Track 14-5Renewable resources

A community is the set of all populations that inhabit a certain area. Communities can have different sizes and boundaries. These are often identified with some difficulty. An ecosystem is a higher levels of organization the community plus its physical environment. Ecosystems include both the biological and physical components affecting the community/ecosystem. We can study ecosystems from a structural view of population distribution or from a functional view of energy flow and other processes. Ecosystem dynamics is the study of how ecosystems change over time. Ecosystems are dynamic in nature, subject to regular micro and macro disturbances, both internal and external. Ecosystem dynamics identifies positive and negative feedback loops as the basic mechanism through which biological creatures and whole ecosystems regulate themselves and change over time. The processes through which organisms regulate themselves and their environment in order to maintain a stable state is recognized as one of the defining characteristics of life. It is understood today that all organisms survive by transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment in order to maintain a stable condition conducive to that functionality and this regulation process is central to the dynamics of the organism or ecosystem as it goes through both stable linear and rapid nonlinear processes of change.

 

  • Track 15-1Ecotones
  • Track 15-2Terrestrial Biomes
  • Track 15-3Shrub land
  • Track 15-4Taiga
  • Track 15-5The Fresh water Biome

 Environmental chemistry seeks to understand the chemical processes that impact the composition of the environment.  Crossing traditional boundaries of geology, chemistry and biology, environmental chemists seek to identify and quantify sources, processes and fates of chemicals on land, in water and in the air.  Environmental toxicology is a related interdisciplinary field that uses knowledge from environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecology to understand the ultimate fate and effects of man-made pollutants, the mechanisms by which pollutants impact the health of organisms and entire ecosystems, and how those effects may be mitigated or reversed.

 Ecological economics is both a transdisciplinary and an interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and coevolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both intertemporally and spatially. By treating the economy as a subsystem of Earth's larger ecosystem, and by emphasizing the preservation of natural capital, the field of ecological economics is differentiated from environmental economics, which is the mainstream economic analysis of the environment. One survey of German economists found that ecological and environmental economics are different schools of economic thought, with ecological economists emphasizing strong sustainability and rejecting the proposition that natural capital can be substituted by human-made capital.

  • Track 17-1Methodology
  • Track 17-2Allocation of resources
  • Track 17-3Weak versus strong sustainability
  • Track 17-4Energy economics
  • Track 17-5Energy accounting and balance
  • Track 17-6Ecosystem services and their valuation
  • Track 17-7Ecological-economic modeling

Social ecology is an approach to society that embraces a ecological, reconstructive, and communitarian view on society. This ideology looks to reconstruct and transform current outlooks on both social issues and environmental factors while promoting direct democracy. It looks to do away with scarcity and hierarchy in the economy in favor of a world in which human communities work together in harmony with nature to accept and promote diversity as well as creativity and freedom. Socio-ecological models were developed to further the understanding of the dynamic interrelations among various personal and environmental factors. Socio-ecological models were introduced to urban studies by sociologists associated with the Chicago School after the First World War as a reaction to the narrow scope of most research conducted by developmental psychologists. These models bridge the gap between behavioral theories that focus on small settings and anthropological theories.

  • Track 18-1Hierarchies and Environmental Crises
  • Track 18-2Fundamental Principles
  • Track 18-3Humans and Nature and Society
  • Track 18-4Other Theories and Viewpoints

 Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments. Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the interplay between individuals and their surroundings. It examines the way in which the natural environment and our built environments shape us as individuals. The field defines the term environment broadly, encompassing natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments.

  • Track 19-1Characteristics of Environmental Psychology
  • Track 19-2Influence of Environment on Behavior
  • Track 19-3Applied Environmental Psychology
  • Track 19-4Scope of Environmental Psychology

Ecological engineering combines ecological understanding of the functioning of human-natural coupled systems with engineering - using science, mathematics and experience for solving problems within constraints - to design management practices that are environmentally, socially and economically viable and sustainable.

  • Track 20-1Environmental Engineering
  • Track 20-2Ecological Modeling
  • Track 20-3Quantitative Ecology