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2nd International Conference on Ecology and Ecosystems, will be organized around the theme ““Challenging Ecological and Evolutionary Ideas and Assumptions ”

Ecology Ecosystems 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Ecology Ecosystems 2018

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An Ecosystem is basically the neighborhood where the animal lives. The habitat is the animal’s address in that neighborhood. Some animals can survive in more than one habitat. Other animals are limited to certain habitats. The ecosystem concept describes the interrelationships between living organisms and the non-living environment. The CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) defines an "ecosystem" as a "dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit". The ecosystem approach aims at an integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. In the fields of nature conservation and biodiversity the common meaning of the term ‘habitat’ is a group of animals and plants in association with their environment.

  • Track 1-1Desert
  • Track 1-2Montane
  • Track 1-3River
  • Track 1-4Savanna
  • Track 1-5Tropical Forest

Organisms live within an ecological community, which is defined as an assemblage of populations of at least two different species that interact directly and indirectly within a defined geographic area. Species interactions form the basis for many ecosystem properties and processes such as nutrient cycling and food webs. The nature of these interactions can vary depending on the evolutionary context and environmental conditions in which they occur. As a result, ecological interactions between individual organisms and entire species are often difficult to define and measure and are frequently dependent on the scale and context of the interactions. Using these classes of interactions as a framework when studying an ecological community allows scientists to describe naturally occurring processes and aids in predicting how human alterations to the natural world may affect ecosystem properties and processes. At the coarsest level, ecological interactions can be defined as either intra-specific or inter-specific

  • Track 2-1Symbiosis
  • Track 2-2Parasitism
  • Track 2-3Mutualism
  • Track 2-4Commensalism
  • Track 2-5Predation

The Biosphere is the layer of the planet Earth where life exists. This layer ranges from heights of up to ten kilometres above sea level, used by some birds in flight, to depths of the ocean such as the Puerto Rico trench, at more than 8 kilometres deep. These are the extremes; however, in general, the layer of the Earth containing life is thin: the upper atmosphere has little oxygen and very low temperatures, while ocean depths greater than 1000 m are dark and cold. In fact, it has been said that the biosphere is like the peel in relation to the size of an apple. The biosphere is unique. So far there has been no existence of life elsewhere in the universe. Life on Earth depends on the sun. Energy, provided as sunlight, is captured by plants, some bacteria, and protests, in the marvellous phenomenon of photosynthesis. The captured energy transforms carbon dioxide into organic compounds such as sugars and produces oxygen. The vast majority of species of animals, fungi, parasitic plants and many bacteria depend directly or indirectly on photosynthesis.

  • Track 3-1Biomes
  • Track 3-2Biota
  • Track 3-3Land Masses
  • Track 3-4Tundra
  • Track 3-5Taiga

Land cover refers to the physical and biological cover over the surface of land, including water, vegetation, bare soil, and/or artificial structures. Land use is a more complicated term. Natural scientists define land use in terms of syndromes of human activities such as agriculture, forestry and building construction that alter land surface processes including biogeochemistry, hydrology and biodiversity. Social scientists and land managers define land use more broadly to include the social and economic purposes and contexts for and within which lands are managed such as subsistence versus commercial agriculture, rented vs. owned, or private vs. public land. While land cover may be observed directly in the field or by remote sensing, observations of land use and its changes generally require the integration of natural and social scientific methods to determine which human activities are occurring in different parts of the landscape, even when land cover appears to be the same. Land use and land cover change refers to human modification of the terrestrial surface of the Earth. 

  • Track 4-1Data Acquisition
  • Track 4-2Population Dynamics
  • Track 4-3Land Degradation
  • Track 4-4Agriculture
  • Track 4-5Urbanization

Conservation and sound stewardship depend on an integrated, landscape-scale perspective to drive appropriate policy. No longer can public lands management proceed in a piecewise manner, with different states, communities, and public agencies acting independently, limiting their focus to particular resources or jurisdictional boundaries. Water allocation, fire management, and wide-ranging fish and wildlife species demand that people work together, across political and geographic boundaries, to ensure that the West’s iconic landscapes and invaluable resources are protected and wisely managed, that communities prosper, and that biological diversity flourishes. To this end, our group identified three key issues that must be addressed immediately if landowners and public land managers effectively issues that will determine the success of future efforts to safeguard Western landscapes. Sustainable landscaping encompasses a variety of practices that have developed in response to environmental issues. These practices are used in every phase of landscaping, including design, construction, implementation and management of residential and commercial landscapes.

  • Track 5-1Carbon sequestration
  • Track 5-2Soil contamination
  • Track 5-3Patch and mosaic
  • Track 5-4Green roof
  • Track 5-5Ecotone

A disaster is a serious disruption, occurring over a relatively short time, of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental loss and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazards and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as in the case of uninhabited regions. Developing countries suffer the greatest costs when a disaster hits more than 95 percent of all deaths caused by hazards occur in developing countries, and losses due to natural hazards are 20 times greater (as a percentage of GDP) in developing countries than in industrialized countries. There are a range of challenges, such as climate change, unplanned-urbanization, under-development/poverty as well as the threat of pandemics that will shape humanitarian assistance in the future. These aggravating factors will result in increased frequency, complexity and severity of disasters. This can include environmental degradation, pollution and accidents. 

  • Track 6-1Thunderstorms
  • Track 6-2Droughts
  • Track 6-3Natural Disaster
  • Track 6-4Disaster Mitigation
  • Track 6-5Sinkholes

A microbial species concept is crucial for interpreting the variation detected by genomics and environmental genomics among cultivated microorganisms and within natural microbial populations. Comparative genomic analyses of prokaryotic species as they are presently described and named have led to the provocative idea that prokaryotes may not form species as we think about them for plants and animals. There are good reasons to doubt whether presently recognized prokaryotic species are truly species. To achieve a better understanding of microbial species, we believe it is necessary to re-evaluate traditional approaches in light of evolutionary and ecological theory, consider that different microbial species may have evolved in different ways and integrate genomic, met genomic and genome-wide expression approaches with ecological and evolutionary theory. If individuals within microbial communities are found to be grouped into ecologically distinct, species-like populations, knowing about such populations should guide us to a better understanding of how genomic variation is linked to community function.

  • Track 7-1Gene prediction
  • Track 7-2Species diversity
  • Track 7-3Genetics Molecular
  • Track 7-4Meta genomics
  • Track 7-5Data integration

Spatial ecology represents the ultimate distributional or spatial unit occupied by a species. In a particular habitat shared by several species, each of the species is usually confined to its own micro habitat or spatial niche because two species in the same general territory cannot usually occupy the same ecological niche for any significant length of time. In spatial environment, scale alludes to the spatial degree of biological procedures and the spatial elucidation of the information. The reaction of a living being or animal categories to the earth is specific to a particular scale and may react distinctively at a bigger or littler scale. Picking a scale that is fitting to the biological procedure being referred to is essential in precisely speculating and deciding the basic cause. In spatial condition, scale insinuates the spatial level of organic systems and the spatial illustration of the data. The response of a living being or a creature classification to the earth is particular to a specific scale and may respond unmistakably at a greater or tinier scale. 

  • Track 8-1Geospatial Modelling
  • Track 8-2Predation
  • Track 8-3Spatial pattern
  • Track 8-4Fragmentation
  • Track 8-5Predator-prey interactions

The efficient monitoring of water resources is fundamental for effective management of water quality and aquatic ecosystems. The first stage in sustainable ecosystem management is the evaluation of the current status of target ecosystems. Traditionally, and even today, physico-chemical parameters have mainly been used to evaluate the quality of water resources. However, they have a large limit to grab the wholeness of water system, particularly in the sense of ecosystem health and integrity, for which ecological monitoring should be based on biological factors. We are increasingly recognizing that they are crucial for the survival of the aquatic biota and human beings on our planet. This Special Issue is designed to improve scientific understanding and strategies for sound aquatic ecosystem management and services for researchers, decision makers, and stakeholders. This Special Issue calls for contributions in this area, covering the ideas, concepts, methods, policies and general studies under the scope of conservation and restoration

  • Track 9-1Habitat loss
  • Track 9-2Invasive species
  • Track 9-3Dam construction
  • Track 9-4Pollution from pesticides and fertilizers
  • Track 9-5Restoring Rivers

Ecologists and evolutionary biologists now routinely use next-generation DNA sequencing in their research, and graduates who are skilled in genome analysis as well as ecology and evolution are rare. Genome-enabled approaches are helping rapidly to advance our understanding of the dynamic relationship between genotype, phenotype and the environment. Our programme will give you cross-disciplinary skills in a rare combination of areas of expertise, from bioinformatics and evolutionary inference to computational biology and fieldwork. The power of genetics which has been bolstered in the past decade by a broad range of genomic tools in dissecting basic cellular and developmental processes is undisputed. It has also been increasingly exploited to understand the interaction between different organisms, particularly between pathogens and their hosts. Because of the technological investments required, genetic and genomic approaches have, however, traditionally been applied only to a small set of carefully chosen model species. 

  • Track 10-1Gene Duplication
  • Track 10-2Mutation
  • Track 10-3Psuedogenes
  • Track 10-4Prokaryotes
  • Track 10-5Eukrayotes

Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. Predicting and maintaining or altering the distribution and abundance of various organisms are the primary goals of natural resource management hence, the effective management of natural ecosystems depends on ecological knowledge. Paradoxically, management of ecosystems often ignores relevant ecological theory and many ecological investigations are pursued without appropriate consideration of management implications. The fundamental thesis of this book is that ecological principles can, and should, serve as the primary basis for the management of natural ecosystems, including their plant and animal populations. Rangeland Ecology and Management focuses on the biological and physical processes of ecosystems and application of this knowledge to sustainable use of range lands. Selection of courses in wildlife or fisheries science, watershed management and Eco hydrology, soil and water science, animal and plant science, or agricultural and resource economics can enhance employment opportunities. 

  • Track 11-1Adaptive management
  • Track 11-2Integrated natural resource management
  • Track 11-3Anthropocentrism
  • Track 11-4Ecocentrism
  • Track 11-5Renewable resources

Ecosystems, whether at the scale of a planet, forest, or urban garden, involve tightly-coupled interactions between social and biophysical processes. Understanding the nature and properties of the resulting feedbacks has its roots in ecosystem science and environmental studies. Sustainable development has two components: “sustainability” and “development.” The basic meaning of the word sustainability is the capacity for continuance indefinitely into the future. Sustainable development has been viewed as an interaction between three systems: biological, economic, and social. Sustainability does not simply mean retaining the material standards of living and environmental preservation. It is a matter of active participation of humankind in the improvement of natural systems and the redesign of global systems that leads to the conservation of our planet for future generations. Inefficient use of land, soils, water, energy, and inappropriate growing of crops and domestic animals are among the major obstacles to sustainable development in improving living standards and the environment.

  • Track 12-1Nutrient cycling
  • Track 12-2Decomposition
  • Track 12-3Ecosystem management
  • Track 12-4Oceans
  • Track 12-5Cultivated land

Marine conservation is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. Marine conservation focuses on limiting human-caused damage to marine ecosystems, restoring damaged marine ecosystems, and preserving vulnerable species of the marine life. Marine conservation is a response to biological issues such as extinction and marine habitats change. Marine conservation is the study of conserving physical and biological marine resources and ecosystem functions. Marine conservation can be seen as sub-discipline of conservation biology. Deep-sea fishing activities sometimes employ gears that can, in the normal course of operation, come into contact with the sea floor. This can have a negative effect on both living marine resources and their ecosystems. The vulnerability of an ecosystem is related to the vulnerability of its constituent population, communities or habitats. When fishing gears come into contact with the seafloor and other structural elements of the ecosystem, damage can occur increasing the physical vulnerability of the ecosystem.

  • Track 13-1Fisheries
  • Track 13-2Sea Life
  • Track 13-3Nature
  • Track 13-4Marine Biology
  • Track 13-5Coral reefs

The study of ecosystems that include humans living in cities and urbanizing landscapes. It is an emerging, interdisciplinary field that aims to understand how human and ecological processes can coexist in human-dominated systems and help societies with their efforts to become more sustainable. Because of its interdisciplinary nature and unique focus on humans and natural systems, the term "urban ecology" has been used variously to describe the study of humans in cities, of nature in cities, and of the coupled relationships between humans and nature. Each of these research areas is contributing to our understanding of urban ecosystems and each must be understood to fully grasp the science of Urban Ecology. Urban Ecology is published to provide information and encourage dialogue on issues related to the urban environment, city and regional planning, and metropolitan affairs. Urban Ecology gives voice to an ecological urbanism. 

  • Track 14-1Greenhouse gases
  • Track 14-2Acid rain and pollution
  • Track 14-3Sustainability
  • Track 14-4Remote sensing
  • Track 14-5Chemical and biochemical techniques

Restoration ecology is a scientific discipline that applies ecological theory in order to develop general principles to guide the practice of ecological restoration. Experimentation within restorations have revealed opportunities for testing hypotheses in ecology, particularly generating knowledge of how to reconstruct the composition, functions, and services of degraded environments. Restoration ecology has been dominated by botanical studies, which often include ecosystem components and processes as well as whole system-level investigation. The discipline has provoked debate over what it means to restore nature, where to source individuals for initiating communities or augmenting populations, which systems serve as appropriate references, and whether modified or entirely different restoration targets should be considered in light of rapid climate and other global changes. The process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed” Cairns and Heckman 1996 synthesizes the state of the field and emphasizes that restoration ecology is its own discipline rather than a sub-discipline of ecology, distinct in its focus on the human factor in all aspects of repairing nature.

  • Track 15-1Ontogeny
  • Track 15-2Local Genetics
  • Track 15-3Succession
  • Track 15-4Biodegradation
  • Track 15-5Stream restoration

Climate change is a change that occurs in the regular pattern of an average weather condition of a region or the whole world. It happens due to the constant heating of the earth surface by the greenhouse gases mostly CO2 which in these present times is 42 per cent more than it did before the industrial revolution. These present is not the start point but has already begun since 1990 and today the temperature is hiked by 0.7°C averagely. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change) an authoritative voice which has assesses the scientific and economic information regarding climate change. Evidences like shifting of animals and plants from their natural behaviour and function, attaining of maturity sooner by the plants, longer growing season are few that supports the climate change is on its way to disrupt the normal livelihood of the planet which is putting a risk to the core existence of the planet and its resides. 

  • Track 16-1Cryosphere
  • Track 16-2Acidification
  • Track 16-3Oxygen depletion
  • Track 16-4Solar variation
  • Track 16-5Vegetation

Freshwater algae include a wide range of organisms that float in the water or grow on submerged surfaces and have the ability to photosynthesise Many community groups regularly sample freshwater invertebrates and these groups will be accidentally collecting algae in every sample.Alage are the base of the food chain and essential to the life in a lake. Algae are a diverse group of organisms that occur in various shapes and sizes and have different ecological roles. Thousands of species of algae occur world-wide in both fresh and marine waters. Many species of freshwater algae float in the water, but others are attached to submerged rocks or aquatic plants. Most freshwater species are inconspicuous and do not create problems for humans. There are only a dozen or so, so-called "bad actors" that are considered problem-causing algae. Algae typically serve as an important and welcome part of a lake or pond ecosystem. 

  • Track 17-1Algal bloom
  • Track 17-2Glaucophyte
  • Track 17-3Red tides
  • Track 17-4Amphora
  • Track 17-5Heterokonts