Day 2 :
Keynote: The fundamental theorem of natural selection with mutations, and mutation accumulation in small populations
Time : 09:00-09:45
The mutation-selection process is the most fundamental mechanism of evolution. In 1935, Ronald Aylmer. Fisher proved his fundamental theorem of natural selection (FTNS), providing a model in which the rate of change of mean fitness is equal to the genetic variance of a species. Fisher did exclude transformations in his model but rather trusted that changes would give a constant supply of fluctuation bringing about the unending increment in mean wellness, in this manner giving an establishment to neo-Darwinian hypothesis. In this discussion, we fabricate a differential conditions display from Fisher's first standards with transformations included and demonstrate an overhauled hypothesis demonstrating the rate of progress in mean wellness is equal to genetic variance plus a mutational effects term, called the fundamental theorem of natural selection with mutations (FTNSM). The expanded theorem has biological implications significantly different from what Fisher had envisioned; most critically, mutations with selection do not provide continual upward pressure on fitness. We observe that for small populations,the model predicts a fitness decline as the deleterious effects of mutation accumulate faster than selection can replenish fitness.In this talk, we present the new FTNSM model and its relation to Fisher’s original work as well as recent work on mutation accumulation in small populations. We will show that our model is more complete than other models for understanding mutation accumulation, and discuss estimation of miniamal population sizes for avoiding a near-term mutational meltdown in endangered species.
Keynote: Improvement of compliance to hand hygiene (HH) best practice as one of the patient safety goals (PSGs) at Al Zaytoon specialized Governmental Hospital, Cairo-Egypt
Time : 09:45-10:15
Introduction: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) lead to increased morbidity& mortality, disability, increase length of hospital stay, and increase in antibiotic resistance. Hands are the most common vehicle to transmit HAIs including (MDRS).Compliance with HH is one of the Egyptian PSGs. Most healthcare providers (HCP) believe they’re practicing appropriate &effective HH, though it doesn’t exceed 40% in most of the organizations according to WHO. Assessment of compliance to PSGs was done at Al-Zaytoon specialized multispecialty governmental hospital that provides various medical, surgical and diagnostic services for about 2 million of the population.
Methodology: Data collection was made by meetings with key persons & stakeholders, Structured Observation and reviewing of available forms, documents, and records. SWOT analysis was made focusing on factors related to PSGs including HH.Assessment of awareness& compliance to Egyptian PSGs was done by Questionnaire and Observation. The least rates werereported to HH (60% awareness and 40% compliance). To Increase overall HH awareness and compliance to 90% over 1 year.Phase I objectives (over 2 months) were to increase HH awareness from 60-80% and improve compliance from 40-60% among HCP that will improve PS. Cause, effect diagram and in-depth analysis of Possible Causes of non-compliance to HH were done,followed by Pareto Chart formulation. Remedy selection for the few vital causes (Lack of training and Lack of supervision) was followed by implementation and reassessment
After Improvement: Finally, a control chart was made to ensure consistency & further improvement in terms of how, where,who, what in relation to the overall goal.
Keynote: Microbiome of soil, plants and humans, the ways and mechanisms of their interrelation, role in P4 and IT- medicine
Time : 10:15-10:45
Statement of the Problem: The fact that our host changes are more likely occur due to the modification of gene expression,rather than the alteration of the genetic code itself reverse/refresh our vision, and finally led to prognostic personified and preventive medicine and sustainable agriculture consistent with cyclic bioeconomy.Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: In vitro and in vivo models, in situ monitoring, limited clinical trials, mathematical modeling, GIS.
Findings: Contaminants spread in targeted 16 EU/Ukrainian trans-border regions and their interplay with soil, water, air microbiome and plant/animal health had been investigated. Regional specificities and peculiarities, regularities and trends between chemical composition, biochemical and biological (microbiological) properties of soils (soil microbiome) and health of edible plants, crops’ productivity, and nutritional value were defined. The prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases in connection with the ecological status of the regions was examined. Quantitative and qualitative microbiological characteristics were obtained for all the prioritized traditional foods originated from Black Sea region’ countries within BaSeFood project, and new national and regional food compositions databases were created. The influence of biologically active compounds (BAC) of edible plants, the major ingredients of the traditional foods, as well as a number of beneficial microorganisms isolated from various sources on the human host was investigated. The pro- or anti-inflammatory effects were detected and the mechanisms of its influence on host immunity and microbiome have been studied. Correlated biomarkers for earlier detection of metabolic diseases were identified. The efficacy of individually selected foods rich with BAC to treat and prevent DT-2 had been proved in a limited clinical trial. GIS systems were created and currently applied for regional nature conservation.
Conclusion & Significance: Connected databases and unique IT instruments for personal nutrition calculation and healthy food manufacturing by local food producers are in focus.